Blog 15: Check Out My Website

Hey everyone, check out my website and learn more about cellphone danger and the mental and psychological effects they have on humans.

htpp://cellphonedangerdanger.weebly.com

 

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Blog Post 14:Cellphone Effects Final Draft

Continuous Cellphone Use: Mental and Psychological Effects on Humans

20110301-4

As we continue to be thrilled by the ongoing evolution of mobile phones, there are still many mysterious dangers about cellphones that remain unknown. Cellphones have been around longer than many of the people using them have even been alive, dating all the way back to 1973, when Dr. Martin Cooper invented the first ever hand held cellphone. It was not until September 21, 1983 that Dr. Cooper’s version of the mobile phone was put out into the public by Motorola, a phone company that is still around to this day. At the time, cellphones were not very popular and cost about $4,000. As cellphones became less expensive, they became more popular. Sales began to skyrocket, and many updated versions of the cellphone were created and continue to be updated to this day. The convenience that cellphones provide, has many people cancelling their landline phones, and beginning to use their cellphones as their primary way to get a hold of them. As of the current year, 2016, over 2 billion people in the world currently own a cellphone, and the number only continues to grow. Though cellphones are good for keeping the world connected, with such a rapid growth of users in such a short amount of time, scientists are worried that there could be some negative mental and psychological effects that come with the use of cellphones. The possibility that the radiation from cell phones can cause cancer is currently being researched by scientists around the world. While cellphones have not be around long enough for scientists to truly know the long-term effects on the brain, negative short-term effects can be easily observed.

One of the many negative short-term effects of cellphones is being a distraction. According to dictionary.com, a distraction is anything that prevents someone from giving their full attention to something else. Cellphones have this effect. They have become such a huge distraction to our daily life’s by taking our attention away from things like work, school, face-to-face conversations, and so on, all things we need to focus on to be productive. Adults have blurred the line between productivity and leisure at work, students have stopped being diligent while attending classes, and now conversations at the dinner table with your family have become short of chatter. Cellphones are being so distracting to the point of danger and even death. For example, sixteen-year-old Kayla Preuss passed away from a head injuries when she lost control of her car and slammed into a center median on the road. Phone records show that Preuss was texting and driving right before the accident took her life. More than 5,000 people in the United States alone die simply from being distracted by using a cellphone while driving. In spite of the fact that researchers have not determined whether being distracted due to the use of a cellphone is specifically “harmful” to the human brain, it is very obvious that cellphones create distraction throughout everyday life.

Cellphones can also be a distraction from a social standpoint. Although cellphones are known for connecting people and allow us to stay in contact when away from each other, they also can cause us to be disconnected or be unsocial with the people right in front of us. Take being in an elevator for instance, when entering an elevator with other people, they tend to avoid conversation by gluing their eyes to their cell phones and pretending to be distracted. A recent study from the University of Maryland’s Robert H. Smith School of Business finds that cellphones may make users less socially minded. Their study involved sets of young men and women around their twenties, which were asked a couple of questions after using their cellphones for a short period of time. Their research showed that participants that were on their cellphones were less likely to volunteer for a community service project, than those in the control-group. They were also less likely to solve word problems even though they knew that if they were to get the correct answer, there would be a donation given to charity. The cellphone users low interest in others continued when they were asked to work together to draw a picture of their cellphones and then discuss how they use them. Using their knowledge from the study, the researchers stated that, “The cell phone directly evokes feelings of connectivity to others, thereby fulfilling the basic human need to belong.” This leads to not wanting to connect with others on a face-to-face basis and not having the ability to understand someone else’s feelings or emotions when coming in contact with them. One part of the study showed that participants felt more connected to society when using their cellphone through social media, using apps like Facebook and Twitter. This indicates that there is a difference in feeling connections through a mobile phone, rather than talking face-to-face, which triggers cellphone users to consistently want to use their mobile devices.

Insomnia is another short term effect from using cellphones. Teens and young adults are more likely to stay up and search the web before falling asleep than adults, but don’t think adults are innocent. According to a 2012 Time/Qualcomm poll, nearly three fourths of people around the world, from age 18 to 44 sleep with their phones within reach. Fox News states that scientists that studied 35 men and 35 women found that using the phones before going to sleep slows down and shortens the deep sleep stages, which is the portion of sleep that allows the brain to shut down and the body to repair from the day. A lot of times cellphone users use their cellphones as alarm clocks to wake them up in the morning, making it almost impossible not to reach for the phone when it is that easily accessible. Many young people feel the need to be available at all hours of the day, including the middle of the night. Researchers have linked heavy cellphone use to sleeping problems, stress, and depression. In a study examined by researchers from Baylor University in Texas, which is published online in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions, more than 200 college students publicized that each student lost an average of about 45 minutes of sleep each week due to being on their cell phones. Sue K. Adams, the assistant professor of human development and family studies says, “Students who feel compelled to wake up in the middle of the night and answer texts and answer phone calls is strange to me.” She told The Chronicle of Higher Education, “you would imagine there’s something about them that’s driving them to feel like they have to stay connected.” Although it is hard for many people to put their cellphones down a few hours before going to bed, it is very important to let the brain relax to allow the body to fall asleep quickly and properly.

Another concern with the use of cell phones is brain damage from radiation. For years, scientists have been concerned that the radiation given off by cellphones could possibly harm us in the long run. On one hand, some argue that radiation has no effect on the brain, not even changing the formation of tumor cells that are already formed on some brains. In the article Exposure to 3G mobile phone signals does not affect the biological features of brain tumor cells, published in 2015, in the Bio Med Central Journal, authors Yu-xiao Liul, Guo-qing Li, Xiang-ping Fu1, et al., are investigating whether or not mobile phones could make changes in human tumor cells, acting as a tumor promoting agent. The authors start out the article by stating that with the increase in cell phone use there has been an uprising concern about the development of brain tumors in the users. As the article continues into more detail, steps are made to test the effects on the brain from 1950-MHz (which is radiofrequency electromagnetic fields) TD-SCDMA exposure. The authors had three specific things that they were testing. The first was how 1950-MHz TD-SCDMA exposure affected the biological features of glioblastoma cells in vitro. The authors’ second test is how that type of exposure affects gene expression and profiles. Lastly the authors tested to see if EMF changed the formation of a tumor cell. They observed the cells for long periods of time and documented the results from the tests. The authors finish the article by explaining that all of the exposure to the brain tumors made no changes to the cells and had no effect on the brain in the 48 hours that it was being tested. On the other hand, however, others argue that holding the cell phone to the ear to talk rather than talking on speaker phone or texting, can cause radiation to stream right into the brain, leading to cancerous tumors.

Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cellphones is an academic journal article, written by Stanislaw Szinigielski, in September 2011. He starts out the article by saying that radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been around for years. He continues by stating that the increase in cell phone use has brought attention to the possible health risks cause by the constant radiation exposure. The author claims that in 2011, experts from the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon believe that RF/MF radiations could possibly be carcinogenic to humans, and should be considered harmful. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones brought recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen for humans. Then the author makes the point that three studies have been done and concluded that by using a cell phone for more than ten years is linked to the risk of developing a brain tumor. Although he says cell phones could be linked to brain tumors, the studies published were not clear and did not give a definite answer to whether or not there was an increase in the risk of cancer. The author concludes by mentioning that the assumptions made from the studies are based on a lack of knowledge, and the fact that brain cancer rates have remained the same, rather than increasing significantly, show that radiation exposure is still a mystery. The author still advices frequent users to be cautious until further research has come out about the true risks of cell phones.

Another long-term effect of cellphones is brain cancer. Researchers have been telling people to use cell phones with caution due to the lack of knowledge about the small handheld devices. Mobile Alert is an academic journal article, written by Bryan Walsh. The article was dated back to July 13th, 2011, but gives similar information found in more recent articles. Walsh discusses two sides of an argument based on whether or not cell phones lead to brain cancer. The author acknowledges that on one hand, the Federal Communications Commission, Food and Drug Administration, and the cell phone industry all argue that cell phones are safe to use. On the other hand Walsh mentions that the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), classified cell phone radiation exposure as “possibly carcinogenic to humans,” which completely conflicts with what the other groups reported. The author then states that on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website, they have a section labeled Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones. He then points out that in that section of the website it reads, “To date, no adverse health effects have been established for mobile phone use,” leaving those two key words for researchers to question; to date. Walsh explains that there is no clear explanation that explains whether or not radiation causes brain tumors. He backs that up by saying the brain cancer rates have not risen in the past two decades. Walsh writes that the evidence for both sides of the argument is limited and needs to be studied further. He then concludes by saying brain cancer still has its secrets and only time and research will tell whether or not radiation is for sure a carcinogen.

In another article called Cell phones and Children: Following the precautionary road, author Suzanne Roseburg begins by explaining that technology has developed rapidly in the recent years and with that advancement came more and more cell phone subscriptions. She suggests that there was about a 1.3 billion increase in mobile subscriptions and with that comes concerns about radiofrequency. Roseburg claims that a lot of the researchers studying this topic are more concerned about children, due to them having thinner skulls and brains that aren’t finished developing. Then the author makes the point that the Food and Drug Administration, Government Accountability Office, and National Institutes of Health have all been studying this questionable topic and have all come to similar conclusions. In addition the author claims that due to the fact that children and adolescents brains are still being developed, there could be potential effects being made to the way connections are being formed in the brain, but it still remains unknown. As time goes on more and more evidence will begin to emerge. In the article, the author brought up a study where they had someone place one phone on each ear and they tested the brain for glucose production. They then had the person talk on one of the phones and collected that glucose data while having a conversation. The author finishes the study by stating the fact that holding the phone to your ear and talking on it causes your brain to create more glucose, rather than just holding a silent phone to the ear. This shows that radiation could possibly be the cause to why there was more cell activity in the brain during the second part of the test. She concludes the article by claiming that it is still unknown whether or not radiation from the cell phone can cause cancer in the brain because there is lack of information and the researchers need to determine the risk over a longer period of time.

Another study from the academic journal article called The Cellphone Study: A respected agency calls them ‘possibly carcinogenic,’ but the evidence is limited, the author is unknown. The article was found in the New York Times. According to this mysterious author, Cellphone users have every right to be confused. He says that in 2010 there was a study done in 13 countries that found no obvious evidence that radiation exposure from cell phones cause cancer. He then goes on by stating that the International Agency for Research on Cancer, “declared that the radiation is possibly carcinogenic to humans,” which should come to people as a concern. He goes on by stating that the agency released this big announcement to the press before releasing a detailed written study with the list of concerns from the cell phone radiation, and will allow scientists to have the first chance to look at the theory and evaluate it. The author goes on to say that the World Health Organization constructed its findings on limited evidence but claimed that people who use cell phones more often than not, have a higher risk of a brain tumor called glioma to emerge. To conclude the author mentions that cell phones were categorized as possible carcinogens and are still under investigation.

Based on my research, which was mainly conducted using scholarly databases, users of cellphones need to start taking precaution to continuous cellphone use due to the short-term and possible long-term effects that could happen in the near future. It is clearly seen in my research that cellphones do cause short term effects such as being a distraction, socially and causing confusion, as well as causing users to lose sleep. Although there is still not enough research gathered about whether or not cellphones cause cancer due to radiation, there is a great possibility that health risks will start to show up in a few years. My own view is that cell phones do have many pros to them, but have not been in this world long enough for us to have enough valid information to know whether or not to discontinue use. The effects from cell phones might start to appear in a few years when the millennials become elders, who use the cell phones for hours at a time, on a daily basis. Though I concede that there have been test results showing that radiation does not affect the brain in any way, I still maintain that the world possibly hasn’t given the study enough time for the radiation to show its true effects. For example, doctors do not know the cause of brain cancer. It is still in the process of being researched. The issue is important because with more and more humans becoming attached to their cell phones, continuous use might lead to health risks referring to the brain.

 

 

Citations

 

Cullen, K. (n.d.). QR Reader.net. Retrieved April 22, 2016, from http://www.qrreaders.net/articles/history-cellphone-technology.html

Liu, Y., Li, G., Fu, X., Xue, J., Ji, S., Zhang, Z., . . . Li, A. (2015). Exposure to 3G mobile phone signals does not affect the biological features of brain tumor cells. BMC Public Health, 15(1).

Rettue, P. (n.d.). Do Cellphones Make Us Less Socially Minded. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/241907.php

Roseburg, S. (2013). Cellphones and Children: Following the precautionary road. Continuing Nursing Education, 1-8. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=15&sid=0e96a72f-8300-4b2b-9ad5-a8402bf18d97@sessionmgr120&hid=116

Szmigielski, S. (2013). Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 32(3), 273-280.

Texting and Driving, True stories, what can and does happen, lost young lives. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.textingndriving.com/stories.html

The Cellphone Study: A respected agency calls them ‘possibly carcinogenic,’ but the evidence is limited. (2011). New York Times, 160(55424), 28. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=11&sid=0e96a72f-8300-4b2b-9ad5-a8402bf18d97@sessionmgr120&hid=116&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=60939767&db=aph

Walsh, B. (2011, July 13). Mobile Alert. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=5&sid=063581be-47c2-4051-99d0-ad3369ce9d02@sessionmgr115&hid=107&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=61205616&db=aph

The definition of definition. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.dictionary.com/browse/definition

 

Blog 12: No Research Required

Cellphones effect the brain in many different ways. It is easy to see that cellphones have created a lot of change in the way we act, feel, and interact with other people around us. My first argument is that cellphones are a distraction to humans. Everywhere I look, people are looking down at their phones instead of being present with what they are doing. They cause humans to be distracted from just about anything, such as driving, listening to lectures, and even having one on one conversations with other humans around them.

Another way cellphone effect humans is by changing the way we socially interact with others. Relationships have gone downhill since the “cool” way to show affection now is by sending a text message. It has caused some people to become socially awkward, leaving them nervous to have a one on one conversation with another human being. People are starting to say things through text messages that they would normally never say in person.

The third way cellphones effect the human brain is by keeping us up at night. Many times people stay on their cellphones right up until they shut their eyes to fall asleep, or at least try to fall asleep. The bright light from the phone causes the brain to stay awake and engaged. Staying off of the cellphone for a couple hours before going to bed will give the brain time to shut down properly, insuring that you have a great night of sleep.

Blog 11: Agree to Disagree

In the academic journal article called The Cellphone Study: A respected agency calls them ‘possibly carcinogenic,’ but the evidence is limited, the author is unknown, although the article was found in the New York Times. According to this mysterious author, Cellphone users have every right to be confused. He says that in 2010 there was a study done in 13 countries that found no obvious evidence that radiation exposure from cell phones cause cancer. He then goes on by stating that the International Agency for Research on Cancer, “declared that the radiation is ”possibly carcinogenic” to humans,” which should come to people as a concern. He goes on by stating that the agency released this big announcement to the press before releasing a detailed written study with the list of concerns from the cell phone radiation, and will allow scientists to have the first chance to look at the theory and evaluate it. The author goes on to say that the World Health Organization based its findings on limited evidence but claimed that people who use cell phones more often than not, have a higher risk of a brain tumor called glioma emerging. To conclude the author mentions that cell phones were categorized as possible carcinogens and are still under investigation.

In response to the article summary above, I agree that radiation exposure from cell phones do cause cancer, a point that needs emphasizing since so many people still believe that cellphones are harmless to humans. If the researchers are right about the fact that we do not have enough evidence yet to fully determine if cellphones are carcinogenic, as I think they are, then we need to reassess the popular assumption that researchers have already found a solution.

Mobile Alert is an academic journal article, written by Bryan Walsh. The article was dated back to July 13th, 2011, but gives similar information found in more recent articles. Walsh discusses two sides of an argument based on whether or not cell phones lead to brain cancer. The author acknowledges that on one hand, the Federal Communications Commission, Food and Drug Administration, and the cell phone industry all argue that cell phones are safe to use. On the other hand Walsh mentions that the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), classified cell phone radiation exposure as “possibly carcinogenic to humans,” which completely conflicts with what the other groups reported. The author then states that on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website, they have a section labeled Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones. He then points out that in that section of the website it reads, “To date, no adverse health effects have been established for mobile phone use,” leaving those two key words for researchers to question; to date. Walsh explains that there is no clear explanation that explains whether or not radiation causes brain tumors. He backs that up by saying the brain cancer rates have not risen in the past two decades. Walsh writes that the evidence for both sides of the argument is limited and needs to be studied further. He then concludes by saying brain cancer still has its secrets and only time and research will tell whether or not radiation is for sure a carcinogen.

In the paragraph above, my feelings on the issue are mixed. I do support the International Agency for Research on Cancer’s position that believe cellphone radiation exposure is possibly carcinogenic to humans, but I find that the Federal Communications Commission and the Food and Drug Administration’s argument that cellphones are safe to use to be equally persuasive. Those unfamiliar with this school of thought may be interested to know that it basically boils down to researchers have not gathered enough information to make a prediction on whether or not cellphones are dangerous for the human brain.

In the article Exposure to 3G mobile phone signals does not affect the biological features of brain tumor cells, published in 2015 in the Bio Med Central Journal, authors Yu-xiao Liul, Guo-qing Li, Xiang-ping Fu1, et al., are investigating whether or not mobile phones could make changes in human tumor cells, acting as a tumor promoting agent. The authors start out the article by stating that with the increase in cell phone use there has been an uprising concern about the development of brain tumors in the users. As the article continues into more detail, steps are made to test the effects on the brain from 1950-MHz (which is radiofrequency electromagnetic fields) TD-SCDMA exposure. They had three specific things that they were testing. The first was how 1950-MHz TD-SCDMA exposure affected the biological features of glioblastoma cells in vitro. The second is how that type of exposure affects gene expression and profiles. Lastly the authors tested to see if EMF changed the formation of a tumor cell. They observed the cells for long periods of time and documents the results from the tests. The article finishes by explaining that all of the exposure to the brain tumors made no changes to the cells and had no effect on the brain.

For the paragraph above, Although I agree with the authors to a point, I cannot accept his overriding assumption that the radiation made absolutely zero changes to the brain tumors that were tested. I agree that due to increase in cellphone use there is a greater chance of effects on the brain because my research leads me to believe that.

Blog 10: Cellphones, Can They Cause Brain Cancer?

 

untitled-infographic

The purpose of why I chose to use “Do Cellphones Cause Brain Cancer” as my topic is because I wanted to inform the audience that cellphones could possibly be a factor that may lead to brain cancer. This infographic is intended to reach anyone that currently uses cellphones to create awareness of the recent studies being done. Although there are limited number of studies that have been done on this topic, my infographic is filled with many facts and statistics that have been gathered so far. In the first block, I chose to state the topic question so that the audience knows exactly what they are about to read. I used an arrow to direct the audience’s eyesight down towards the information. I made the cellphone font slimmer to draw more attention to the question, “Can They Cause Cancer.” For the second block, I stated the short-term and long-term effects of how cellphones effect the brain in smaller ways. These symptoms are components that could be connected to brain cancer. I used circular photo frames on the short-term side instead of listing the symptoms out because I thought it was a more creative way to display my information. On the long-term side, I bolded the numbers to simply add pizazz. The third block presents two statistics to show that there are a very high percentage of people that own cellphones. I broke the statistics down into two different age groups, teenagers and adults. I used two graphics to represent the specific age groups listed. I outlined the facts to emphasize their importance in the infographic. For the fourth block, I chose to share a graph with the audience to show the increased growth of cellphone subscribers in the world. The graph starts in 1986 and ends in present day 2016 to show the wide range of time the use of cellphones had to increase. I outlined the graph with a hexagon to display the graph as the main focus in this section. Around the hexagon are four facts about brain cancer. I chose to display these facts to show the huge number gap between people who own cellphones and people who are getting diagnosed with brain cancer. With such a high amount of people who own cellphones, wouldn’t there be a high amount of people diagnosed with brain cancer? I decided to go with three basic colors to keep the infographic well organized and put together. I chose grey for one of my colors because grey is the color that represents brain cancer support and awareness. The national color for brain cancer in America is grey as well. Black is a somber color, which I used because it creates a depressing effect due to the seriousness of brain cancer. Blue was my third and final color because it generates a calm effect to go along with the gloomy topic. Overall, my infographic is simple and quiet because I wanted the audience to take the topic seriously. Although my question could not be answered, I created an infographic that is unbiased and still managed to give good information about cellphones and brain cancer.

Blog 8: Facts and Figures

The big question is “Does continuous cell phone use cause brain cancer?” The answer is still unclear due to limited research, but there are ways that I can track down the results from the studies done so far. After I gather my information, I’m going to be making an infographic, which is basically a visual image of gathered information, like a chart or diagram. By using this website, http://piktochart.com/blog/8-types-of-infographics-which-right-for-you/, I was able to figure out which infographic style I should use for my specific topic.

I think the best types of infographics for me to try out are graphs or a timeline showing the increase in cell phone use compared to the increase or decrease of brain cancer. I could also try using what is called a photo infographic, showing a picture of the brain and highlighting the places of the brain that brain cancer is most found.

example of Graph:

th.jpg

example of Timeline:

thERFLT1VE

example of Photo Infographic:

th (3)

For my specific topic, it might be helpful to use data on how many people have brain cancer, how many people get it per year, or see the ages of the cell phone users and like it to the ages of people with brain cancer. I think it would also be helpful to make a graph showing how many people prefer talking on the phone over texting and vice versa.

After coming up with the ideas I think would make up great infographics, I know I need to research a bit more of the facts and figures of these ideas. I have yet to find an article with a lot of data I could possible use for this.

Any thoughts or words of advice??

 

Blog 7: Cell Phones Creating Risk For Cancer?

Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cellphones

Does Continuous Use of Cell Phones Cause Brain Cancer?

20110301-4

Introduction

In recent discussions of cell phone radiation, a controversial issue has been brought up about whether or not the radiation from the cell phone causes health risks to the human brain. On one hand, some argue that radiation has no effect on the brain, not even changing the formation of tumor cells that are already formed on some brains. From this perspective, the theory was tested and recorded, showing that nothing did appear to happen to the brain after short periods of radiation exposure. But was the brain exposed long enough? On the other hand, however, others argue that holding the cell phone to the ear to talk rather than talking on speaker phone or texting, can cause radiation to stream right into the brain, leading to cancerous tumors, especially in children or adolescents, due to thinner skulls and brains that are still developing.

Based on my research, which was mainly conducted using scholarly medical databases, this issue is of interest to doctors or people in the medical field. My own view is that cell phones have not been in this world long enough to have enough valid information on this subject. The effects from cell phones might start to appear in a few years when the millennials become elders, who use the cell phones for hours at a time, on a daily basis. Though I concede that there have been test results showing that radiation does not affect the brain in any way, I still maintain that the world possibly hasn’t given the study enough time for the radiation to show its true effects. For example, doctors do not know the cause of brain cancer. It is still in the process of being researched. The issue is important because with more and more humans becoming attached to their cell phones, continuous use might lead to health risks referring to the brain in the future.

Listed below are some academic articles that I have used to research the question: Does continuous use of cell phones cause brain cancer?

Liu, Y., Li, G., Fu, X., Xue, J., Ji, S., Zhang, Z., . . . Li, A. (2015). Exposure to 3G mobile phone signals does not affect the biological features of brain tumor cells. BMC Public Health, 15(1).

In the article Exposure to 3G mobile phone signals does not affect the biological features of brain tumor cells, published in 2015, in the Bio Med Central Journal, authors Yu-xiao Liul, Guo-qing Li, Xiang-ping Fu1, et al., are investigating whether or not mobile phones could make changes in human tumor cells, acting as a tumor promoting agent. The authors start out the article by stating that with the increase in cell phone use there has been an uprising concern about the development of brain tumors in the users. As the article continues into more detail, steps are made to test the effects on the brain from 1950-MHz (which is radiofrequency electromagnetic fields) TD-SCDMA exposure. The authors had three specific things that they were testing. The first was how 1950-MHz TD-SCDMA exposure affected the biological features of glioblastoma cells in vitro. The authors’ second test is how that type of exposure affects gene expression and profiles. Lastly the authors tested to see if EMF changed the formation of a tumor cell. They observed the cells for long periods of time and documented the results from the tests. The authors finish the article by explaining that all of the exposure to the brain tumors made no changes to the cells and had no effect on the brain in the 48 hours that it was being tested.

 

Roseburg, S. (2013). Cellphones and Children: Following the precautionary road. Continuing Nursing Education, 1-8. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=15&sid=0e96a72f-8300-4b2b-9ad5-a8402bf18d97@sessionmgr120&hid=116

In the article Cell phones and Children: Following the precautionary road, author Suzanne Roseburg begins by explaining that technology has developed rapidly in the recent years and with that advancement came more and more cell phone subscriptions. She suggests that there was about a 1.3 billion increase in mobile subscriptions and with that comes concerns about radiofrequency. Roseburg claims that a lot of the researchers studying this topic are more concerned about children, due to them having thinner skulls and brains that aren’t finished developing. Then the author makes the point that the Food and Drug Administration, Government Accountability Office, and National Institutes of Health have all been studying this questionable topic and have all come to similar conclusions. In addition the author claims that due to the fact that children and adolescents brains are still being developed, there could be potential effects being made to the way connections are being formed in the brain, but it still remains unknown. As time goes on more and more evidence will begin to emerge. In the article, the author brought up a study where they had someone place one phone on each ear and they tested the brain for glucose production. They then had the person talk on one of the phones and collected that glucose data while having a conversation. The author finishes the study by stating the fact that holding the phone to your ear and talking on it causes your brain to create more glucose, rather than just holding a silent phone to the ear. This shows that radiation could possibly be the cause to why there was more cell activity in the brain during the second part of the test. She concludes the article by claiming that it is still unknown whether or not radiation from the cell phone can cause cancer in the brain because there is lack of information and the researchers need to determine the risk over a longer period of time.

 

Szmigielski, S. (2013). Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 32(3), 273-280.

Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cellphones, is an academic journal article, written by Stanislaw Szinigielski, in September 2011. He starts out the article by saying that radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been around for years. He continues by stating that the increase in cell phone use has brought attention to the possible health risks cause by the constant radiation exposure. The author claims that in 2011, experts from the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon believe that RF/MF radiations could possibly be carcinogenic to humans, and should be considered harmful. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones brought recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen for humans. Then the author makes the point that three studies have been done and concluded that by using a cell phone for more than ten years is linked to the risk of developing a brain tumor. Although he says cell phones could be linked to brain tumors, the studies published were not clear and did not give a definite answer to whether or not there was an increase in the risk of cancer. The author concludes by mentioning that the assumptions made from the studies are based on a lack of knowledge, and the fact that brain cancer rates have remained the same, rather than increasing significantly, show that radiation exposure is still a mystery. The author still advices frequent users to be cautious until further research has come out about the true risks of cell phones.

 

The Cellphone Study: A respected agency calls them ‘possibly carcinogenic,’ but the evidence is limited. (2011). New York Times, 160(55424), 28. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=11&sid=0e96a72f-8300-4b2b-9ad5-a8402bf18d97@sessionmgr120&hid=116&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=60939767&db=aph

In the academic journal article called The Cellphone Study: A respected agency calls them ‘possibly carcinogenic,’ but the evidence is limited, the author is unknown. The article was found in the New York Times. According to this mysterious author, Cellphone users have every right to be confused. He says that in 2010 there was a study done in 13 countries that found no obvious evidence that radiation exposure from cell phones cause cancer. He then goes on by stating that the International Agency for Research on Cancer, “declared that the radiation is possibly carcinogenic to humans,” which should come to people as a concern. He goes on by stating that the agency released this big announcement to the press before releasing a detailed written study with the list of concerns from the cell phone radiation, and will allow scientists to have the first chance to look at the theory and evaluate it. The author goes on to say that the World Health Organization constructed its findings on limited evidence but claimed that people who use cell phones more often than not, have a higher risk of a brain tumor called glioma to emerge. To conclude the author mentions that cell phones were categorized as possible carcinogens and are still under investigation

 

Walsh, B. (2011, July 13). Mobile Alert. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=5&sid=063581be-47c2-4051-99d0-ad3369ce9d02@sessionmgr115&hid=107&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=61205616&db=aph

Mobile Alert is an academic journal article, written by Bryan Walsh. The article was dated back to July 13th, 2011, but gives similar information found in more recent articles. Walsh discusses two sides of an argument based on whether or not cell phones lead to brain cancer. The author acknowledges that on one hand, the Federal Communications Commission, Food and Drug Administration, and the cell phone industry all argue that cell phones are safe to use. On the other hand Walsh mentions that the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), classified cell phone radiation exposure as “possibly carcinogenic to humans,” which completely conflicts with what the other groups reported. The author then states that on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website, they have a section labeled Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones. He points out that in that section of the website it reads, “To date, no adverse health effects have been established for mobile phone use,” leaving those two key words for researchers to question; to date. Walsh explains that there is no clear explanation that explains whether or not radiation causes brain tumors. He backs that up by saying the brain cancer rates have not risen in the past two decades. Walsh writes that the evidence for both sides of the argument is limited and needs to be studied further. He then concludes by saying brain cancer still has its secrets and only time and research will tell whether or not radiation is for sure a carcinogen.

Blog 6: Cell Phones Destroy Humans

As we all can tell from my previous articles I have written, I am a very indecisive person when it comes to choosing what I want to do with the rest of my life. Once again, I have changed my research topic to “How does the continuous use of cellphones effect the human brain.”

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That being said I started researching that topic question for the first time today. While researching, I came across an article called “5 Reasons Why Cell Phones Are Bad For Your Health,” by Liz Borelli. The article was found in the Medical Daily journal and published on July 12, 2013. The author starts the article was a short introduction paragraph explaining that 90% of adults and over 60% of kids have cell phones. The author continues by stating that majority of cell phone users spend an average of 144 minutes on their phones during a 16 hour period. “While cell phones provide an efficient and easy way to communicate with friends, family, and co-workers, excessive use can take a toll on your health,” states Borelli.

As the article goes on Borelli talks about the five main concerns of having continuous use of a cell phone throughout the paper. One concern in particular is how cell phones effect human emotion towards others. Borelli gives an example of a study done with two people in a secluded area having a one-on-one conversation with no cell phones present, while in another secluded area, there is two people having a one-on-one conversation with cell phones present. The results of the study show that having cell phones present during a conversation can cause people to be more negative while talking.

Another topic being spoken about by the author is increased stress levels. Borelli says that excessive ringing, vibrating, and reminders popping up on people’s cell phones brings stress to human mental health. Chronic pain is another risk discussed by Borelli. According to the article, chronic pain comes from constant use of your hands texting messages or emails. This causes inflammation in human joints which creates the chronic pain.

The last two topics mentioned by the author were risk of illness and eye vision problems. The author concludes with many examples for all of these topics and backs it up with research that has previously been done.

Borelli, Liz. “5 Reasons Why Cellphones Are Bad For Your Health.” Medical Daily. Consumer News, 2013. Web. 18 Feb. 2016. <http://www.medicaldaily.com/5-reasons-why-cellphones-are-bad-your-health-247624>. 

Blog 5: Questioning Fraud In The Business World

It has been so hard for me to really pin point what I want to do with my life when I graduate college, and by that I mean what job will I strive to get. BUT for now, I have come to the conclusion that I would like to start a franchise of some sort. I drew out a concepts map and had Owning my own franchise in the middle of it. Coming off of it are things like Target Market, Boutique, Hair Salon, Investing.

So, I typed into google, “How to start a franchise.” This lead me to an article all about the requirements and necessities of running a franchise. After reading the article, I gathered some specific steps I personally would need to take before starting. I added to my concepts map things like, financial management, legal documentation, systems, mindset and advisors.

I would first need to run my own business, having a single store or salon and making sure it can be successful before turning it into a franchise. When opening up your own business, it is going to take a lot of financial planning. That being said I then google searched “financial plan for opening up a hair salon.”

In the next webpage that I read, I came across the word fraud. Seeing that word brought me to the realization that fraud happens in business’ all around the world. My next thought was “How do I protect my business from fraud.” That is now my narrowed down, more specific topic for my research project.

 

Blog 4: Widespread Challenges to Sustainability

Some Pervasive Challenges to Sustainability by Design of Electronic Products – A Conceptual Discussion is an academic journal article, written by four authors named Rafael Laurenti, Rajib Sinha, Jagdeep Singh, and Bjorn Frostell. The authors’ main argument is finding more efficient ways to make industrial products and save scarce resources. The article was published in August 2015 in the Journal of Cleaner production, a scholarly journal usually geared toward professional engineers. We can also assume the intended audience would most likely be anyone who is interested in sustainable, efficient ways of creating electronic products or is involved with the industrial industry. The authors’ purpose was to mainly inform the readers that there is a problem in the way they are creating their industrial products. The authors also try to entertain the readers by showing a current study of mobile phone subscribers in developed and developing countries. This shines a light on the idea of how the evolution of technology is causing more people to change their mobile phones more often. By changing their mobile phones more often, this is giving a shorter lifespan to mobile phones that are still in working condition.

The article begins by stating the 3 main points of sustainability, most important to the authors, which include ‘Doom and gloom’ environmentalism, ecological modernization, and acknowledgement of unintended environmental consequences. The authors claim that environmentalists believe future efforts should be devoted to adjusting the society to the destructive consequences that will be hitting us in the near future. On the ecological side, the authors explain that by fixing technology, it can reduce improvements in the environment due to economic growth. “From an industrial perspective, great progress has been made in achieving environmental gains that yield parallel economic benefits, e.g. refrigerators, washing machines, cars, computers, mobile phones and other industrial appliances now consume much less material and energy during life cycle than previous generations. However, rather less attention has been paid to the unintended consequences of incremental improvements, which occur separated in time and geographical location from the point of consumption (R.L., R.S., J.S., B.J., 2015).”

Because sustainability is the main topic of this article the authors list ways that we are unintentionally hurting the environment, such as “Increasing use of scarce minerals in smart phones, tablets, lap-tops, hybrid cars, LED light bulbs, etc., which have contributed to resource wars in developing countries (R.L., R.S., J.S., B.J., 2015).” Another way the authors explained was by population growth, improvements made in standard living, and an increasing demand for material goods. Due to those things, high quality resources have been being over used. It is made clear in the article that product design is the point where we should be addressing these challenges and making changes.

In conclusion, this article looks at many widespread challenges to sustainability, such as working products being thrown away, environmental and social impacts, and the use of scarce resources. Although fixing these challenges are difficult, the authors informed the readers about the consequences of creating products that aren’t as sustainable, which can lead them to create more efficient products in the future.

 

Work Cited

Laurenti, Rafael, Rajib Sinha, jagdeep Singh, et. Al “Some Pervasive Challenges to Sustainability by Design of Electronic Products – a Conceptual Discussion.” Journal of Cleaner Production 108 (2015):281-288.